By William C. Raschke (auth.), Stewart Sell, Britta Wahren (eds.)
The skill to diagnose melanoma through easy size of a serum or tissue' 'marker" has been a target of scientific technological know-how for a few years. there's abundant proof that tumor cells are various from basic cells and seasoned duce elements that may be detected by way of at the moment on hand immuno chemical or biochemical tools. those "cancer markers" could be se creted proteins, enzymes, hormones, fetal serum elements, monoclonal immunoglobulins, mobilephone floor parts, or cytoplasmic ingredients. the aim of this ebook is to provide the present prestige of our wisdom of such melanoma markers. the 1st tumor marker pointed out via laboratory capacity was once Bence Jones protein. In a sequence of lectures brought to the Royal collage of Phy sicians in London in 1846, Dr. H. Bence Jones defined experiences on a urine pattern despatched to him with the subsequent notice: "Dear Dr. Jones-The tube comprises urine of very excessive particular gravity. whilst boiled it turns into somewhat opaque . . . . and so forth. " Dr. Jones stumbled on that heating of the urine after addition of nitric acid ended in formation of a heavy precipitate; acid advert dition could have been required to deliver the urine to pH 4-6 at which Bence Jones proteins usually tend to precipitate while heated. This urinary pre cipitate was once linked to a bone affliction termed "mollities ossium. " [H. Bence Jones, Papers on Chemical Pathology, Lecture III. Lancet 2, 269-274 (1847)].
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It has been the aim of many research groups to devise methods that could delineate similar subsets in the human lymphoid system. 1. 1. Subsets of Lymphocytes Defined by Rosetting with Sheep Red Blood Cells In humans, obvious limitations have prevented an approach similar to that used in mice, where inbred strains and the ability to perform immunizations allowed the production of specific antibodies to lymphoid cells. , 1972). , 1973). Thus the SRBC rosette-positive cells appeared analogous to the T cells defined in animal systems; the simplicity of the rosetting procedure led to widespread clinical use of this method to enumerate T cells.
1978) Steplewski et al. (1979) Yeh ct al. (1979) Woodbury et al. (1980) References m A I 0 (f) » JJ 0 5: 5> ~ r r C"> CEA -crossreacting antigen (NGP) Colonic mucosa Normal lung ND 180,000(CEA) CEA Colorectal carcinomas Same as Group I, except binds to 4 of 8 CRCs Pure CEA 1116NS-15 VII-23 ND ND ND Same as Group I, except binds to 5 of 8 CRCs and I of 10 melanomas Same as Group I, except binds to 5 of 8 CRCs 1116NS-52b 1116NS-36 1116NS-52a ND ND 1116NS_3b}1116NS-19 ND ND ND ND ND ND Same as Group I, except binds to 6 of 8 CRCs Same as Group I, except binds to 7 of 8 CRCs and I of 10 melanomas Same as Group I, except binds to only 7 of 8 CRCs Accolla et a!.
Each of these fractions can be further subdivided into subfractions that perform distinct functions and have characteristic cell surface antigens. 2. T Cell Subsets Defined by Membrane Receptors for Immunoglobulin Initial studies by Moretta et al. (1976) suggested that T cell subsets could be identified by their expression of the Fc receptor for immunoglobulin. , 1978). , 1980). , 1979; Gonzalez and Speigelberg, 1977). Since the presence of Fc receptors provided an initial means to study T lymphocyte subsets, extensive (and sometimes conflicting) literature has recently been generated.
Human Cancer Markers by William C. Raschke (auth.), Stewart Sell, Britta Wahren (eds.)