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C. Max Lang D.V.M. (auth.)'s Animal Physiologic Surgery PDF

By C. Max Lang D.V.M. (auth.)

ISBN-10: 0387901876

ISBN-13: 9780387901879

ISBN-10: 1475738714

ISBN-13: 9781475738711

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Sample text

In light surgical anesthesia, the eyelids remain open and random movement of the eyeball may occur, although the rate is slower than in stage II. Early in light surgical anesthesia, the iris constricts slightly so that it is only partially dilated; but with the approach of deep surgical anesthesia the iris dilates again. The pedal (deep pain) reflex disappears almost at the onset of stage III. The corneal and palpebral reflexes are still present but are delayed. Muscle tone, which may be normal at the beginning of light surgical anesthesia, gradually decreases because of depression of the ordinary postural reflexes.

2. 20 3. Total deficit (mEg) = deficit per liter X extracellular fluid volume (liters) 4. Volume of solution reguired (ml) = total deficit (mEg) electrolyte solution (mEg/liter) X 100 mljliter 2. For nutrition In many cases, parenteral fluid therapy is used not only to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalance but also to provide parenteral nutrition. It should be remembered, however, that a few hundred milliliters of commercially prepared carbohydrate, or protein solution do not come close to fulfilling an animal's nutritional reguirements.

Some dogs, however, show little reflex activity during this stage. Respiration and pulse are influenced by the degree of excitement and exertion. As a rule, the pulse is rapid and strong. Commonly in the early part and sometimes throughout this stage, the respiration is uneven in depth and rate; breath holding may even occur. The eyelids are open wide and the irises are dilated because of sympathetic stimulation; they remain reactive to light, however. Reflex vomiting is common in this stage, unless food and water has been withheld for at least 6 hours or more before anesthesia.

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Animal Physiologic Surgery by C. Max Lang D.V.M. (auth.)


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