By Ananjan Basu
"This e-book begins with a quick review, after which provides a quick precis of the elemental conception and the construction blocks required to appreciate and use microwave size innovations. After a quick description of older size concepts (slotted wave consultant etc.) the publication offers a pretty particular description of the vector community analyzer and the spectrum analyzer, which shape the spine of contemporary microwave measurements. complicated issues similar to pulsed measurements and non-linear community research are just pointed out in passing"-- Read more...
summary: "This booklet begins with a quick evaluation, after which provides a brief precis of the elemental concept and the development blocks required to appreciate and use microwave dimension recommendations. After a quick description of older dimension innovations (slotted wave consultant etc.) the booklet provides a pretty special description of the vector community analyzer and the spectrum analyzer, which shape the spine of recent microwave measurements. complex subject matters corresponding to pulsed measurements and non-linear community research are just pointed out in passing"
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Additional info for An Introduction to Microwave Measurements
In this case, the difference frequency signal strength will be the RF signal strength + CG, while the signal at f L would have a strength somewhat below the LO. So, the filter should ensure that the stop-band attenuation at 1 GHz is more than 80 dB compared to the passband at 10 MHz. This will involve a nontrivial effort in filter design, which is not actually necessary. The problem in the single-ended mixer can be remedied by using a balanced mixer. In its simplest form, the sum and difference of the two inputs are fed to two identical nonlinear devices, and the difference between the two sets of generated signals is taken as the final output.
As mentioned earlier, there are indeed situations where the incoming and outgoing waves are well defined, and not voltages and currents. 3 Let us investigate the S-parameters of a microstrip step junction from a 50 Ω line to a 20 Ω line. Again, let us choose a low frequency, say, 1 GHz, where the physical geometry of the discontinuity has little effect, and let us choose line lengths of 5 mm each, with a hypothetical air dielectric used in the microstrip. The reference R is 50 Ω. 7° These values are intuitively satisfying: since the whole circuit is much smaller than a wavelength, it may be regarded as a simple connection from input to output, in which case S11 = S22 = 0 and S12 = S21 = 1.
The diagonal elements are 0. Each column has an additional 0 (other than the diagonal). The magnitude of a nonzero element in any column is either C (the coupling) or T (the through-port transmission or main line loss). The number C (the coupling) is the main specification of the coupler. Usually it is specified in dB: coupling = –20 log10 |C|. To realize the above properties (specially over a broad frequency range) may be a challenging task, especially if the permissible deviation from ideal values is small.
An Introduction to Microwave Measurements by Ananjan Basu