By Munenori Takehara, Hideo Hirohara (auth.), Yoshimitsu Hamano (eds.)
Microorganisms are in a position to generating a wide selection of biopolymers. Homopolymer peptides, that are made of just a unmarried form of amino acid, are a long way much less ubiquitous. the one amino-acid homopolymers recognized to take place in nature are offered during this quantity. Poly-epsilon-L-lysine is a polycationic peptide and indicates antimicrobial task opposed to a large spectrum of microorganisms. it truly is either secure and biodegradable and is as a result used as a foodstuff preservative in numerous nations. furthermore, there was nice curiosity in clinical and different purposes of poly-lysine and its derivatives. against this, poly-gamma-glutamic acid is an strange anionic polypeptide. it's also water soluble, biodegradable, fit to be eaten, non-toxic and non-immunogenic and will be chemically transformed to introduce numerous medicinal drugs. those positive aspects are very invaluable for pharmaceutical and biomedical functions. Poly-glutamic acid is usually a hugely beautiful as nutrition ingredient.
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Extra info for Amino-Acid Homopolymers Occurring in Nature
38 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Abstract Streptomyces albulus NBRC14147 (previously named IFO14147) is known to produce the amino-acid homopolymer antibiotic, poly-e-L-lysine (e-polyL-lysine, e-PL), consisting of 25–35 L-lysine residues with a linkage between the a-carboxyl group and the e-amino group. Because e-PL exhibits antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of microorganisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as antiphage activity, and because it is both safe and biodegradable, e-PL has been introduced as a food preservative in Japan, South Korea, Y.
2003). In S. 0 Â 10À8). Nihira et al. have reported that the optimal concentration of MgCl2 for conjugation differs among the various strains (Choi et al. 2004). In fact, in S. 0 Â 10À7) (Hamano et al. 2005). 5 Y. Hamano Construction of a Genetically Engineered Strain of S. albulus CR1 for e-PL Overproduction Shima et al. have reported that the L-lysine molecule is directly utilized in e-PL biosynthesis (Shima et al. 1983). In most bacteria, L-lysine is biosynthesized by the amino-acid biosynthetic pathway from L-aspartic acid (aspartate pathway, Fig.
Coli and B. subtilis. This result could be due to the need for that, L-lysine, which is one of biosynthetic precursors of CPM-C, must be fully served to not only nascent protein biosynthesis but also the CPM-C biosynthesis (Fig. 4). The e-PL producer, S. albulus NBRC14147, can produce a large amount of e-PL (usually 1–3 g/l). Therefore, Ask(s) of S. albulus was also expected to be potentially resistant to feedback-inhibition by L-lysine and/or L-threonine to provide sufficient amounts of L-lysine for e-PL biosynthesis, similar to those of A.
Amino-Acid Homopolymers Occurring in Nature by Munenori Takehara, Hideo Hirohara (auth.), Yoshimitsu Hamano (eds.)