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By S. Bilensky

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The authors of Ref. [229] claim that this neutrino mass determination is fairly robust against variations of presently unknown quantities. 2) is no longer valid. The authors of Ref. 07 eV, consistent with Super-Kamiokande data, explains the cosmic ray events in this leptonic asymmetric case. Also, we would like to mention that the possibility that Z-bursts may account for events just below the GZK energy and above the ankle of the cosmic ray spectrum is considered in Ref. 07 eV. Many other aspects of the Z-burst scenario have been treated in the literature [232].

Once decoupled very early in the history of the Universe (at T ∼ 1 MeV) neutrinos free-stream at almost the speed of light. This is so until after their momenta become on the order of their mass and less and hence they enter a non-relativistic regime. During their relativistic life-span they outflow from regions smaller than the horizon so that these regions are being depleted and hence energy density perturbations at those scales are effectively erased. This phenomenon comes to an end when neutrinos cease to free-stream as they become non-relativistic and can cluster with the cold components of dark matter for all scales that are larger than the Hubble radius at the time the neutrinos become non-relativistic.

The properties of the process e− e+ → Z → hadrons, have been studied with huge statistics at LEP (see Ref. 5). The average multiplicity is ∼ 30, with final states having an average of about 2 nucleons, 10 neutral pions and 17 charged pions. The nucleons will then have an average energy ER eV × 1020 eV . 7 60 eV mi × 1020 eV . 7) In the Z-burst scenario these protons and/or photons are the cosmic ray primaries. 1). Relevant for the purposes of this review is the determination of the neutrino mass if the Z-burst mechanism turns out to be the solution to the GZK puzzle, as discussed in Ref.

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Absolute Values of Neutrino Masses - Status and Prospects by S. Bilensky

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