By Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund
The promising excessive info fee instant functions at millimeter wave frequencies in most cases and 60 GHz specifically have won a lot consciousness in recent times. even if, demanding situations on the topic of circuit, structure and measurements in the course of mm-wave CMOS IC layout must be conquer earlier than they could turn into plausible for mass market.60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops concentrating on phase-locked loops for 60 GHz instant transceivers elaborates those demanding situations and proposes recommendations for them. The method point layout to circuit point implementation of the entire PLL, in addition to separate implementations of person elements comparable to voltage managed oscillators, injection locked frequency dividers and their combos, are incorporated. moreover, to meet a couple of transceiver topologies concurrently, flexibility is brought within the PLL structure through the use of new dual-mode ILFDs and switchable VCOs, whereas reusing the low frequency elements on the similar time.
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Extra info for 60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops
The corner frequency between these two transitions is determined by the loop bandwidth, fc. Therefore, as depicted by Fig. 14, the in-band phase noise is dominated by all synthesizer components other than VCO and the out-of-band phase noise follows the VCO phase noise curve. 3. To estimate phase noise performance of the synthesizer in ADS, typical noise contributions of individual components are used. 15 shows the overall synthesizer phase noise as well as contributions from individual components such as VCO, PFD and CP.
M. V. 2010 35 36 3 Layout and Measurements at mm-Wave Frequencies different device orientation also become visible. Owing to low-resistivity, CMOS substrates incur losses for passive structures such as inductors, transformers and transmission lines, degrading their high frequency performance. Furthermore, cross-talk between RF interconnects in close proximity deteriorates the spectral purity of signals and requires isolation and shielding from each other. Variation in ground potential in different parts of the integrated circuit generates erroneous voltage levels and innovative grounding techniques are required to achieve a common reference voltage all over the chip.
A few examples of patterned ground shields are shown in Fig. 6a–c. The drawback of the shield method is the possible reduction of self-resonance frequency (FSR) of the inductor caused by the increased capacitance. One way to mitigate this issue is to use the metal layer (as shield) which is most far from the inductor metal layer. l An alternative to the shield structure is to introduce a “ground ring” which surrounds the passive element as shown in Fig. 6d. This ring captures most of the fringing fields from reaching the substrate, thereby reducing the associated losses.
60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops by Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund